India’s Maritime Wall in the Indo-Pacific Region

The Indo-Pacific region is a domain of ever-growing conflict involving numerous nations in economic and political disputes. China, as a nation is expanding its power and presence throughout the region claiming majority of the nautical area and expanding towards the Indian Ocean from the Pacific, in an expansionist approach to Indo-Pacific dominance presenting a national threat to India, ASEAN, and the United States of America as it strives in its objective to govern the Indo-Pacific region for energy security and trade supremacy. This article will focus on three aspects. It will first analyze India’s maritime interest in the Indo-Pacific Region, explore India’s Act East policy and its expansion with the littoral states of ASEAN, and examine the impact of rising tensions in the Indo-Pacific on the Western hemisphere and beyond.

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Assessing United Nations Efficacy and Politics: The Case of Sierra Leone

A major debate about the United Nations is whether the organization has been effective in promoting human rights. From 1999 to 2006, the United Nations operated in the aftermath of the Sierra Leone conflict through the three bodies of the Human Rights Council, the Office of the High Commissioner, and the Special Court of Sierra Leone. While the three UN bodies functioned differently and often depended on the local governments’ ability and willingness to cooperate, they were overall able to improve the human rights situation of the country.

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The “Winners” and “Victims” of Naming and Shaming

The United Nations Human Rights Council’s (UNHRC) “naming and shaming” system often have differential effects across regimes due to variations in power, alliances, and economic impact, and are often ineffective in improving human rights in violator states. The naming and shaming system cannot simply serve as a tool for states to prove their support for human rights and to gain political legitimacy at the expense of alienating other states, and should instead focus on the very agents that will bring about and uphold global norms and values.

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A Sequential Relationship: Drought’s Contribution to the Onset of the Syrian Civil War

While drought and other forms of environmental stresses do not directly cause the onset of civil wars, can they contribute to the outbreak of intrastate conflicts? In the Syrian war, drought increased unemployment in the agricultural-sector, and this resulted in the aggravation of preexisting grievances over water scarcity, which was a trigger of the conflict’s initial protests that sparked the onset of the conflict.

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Jacob Schiff: The Right Hand of American Expansionism

The “Schiff era” from 1880 to 1920 transformed the United States into the world’s foremost industrialized economy. As a banker and philanthropist, Jacob Schiff advanced the industrial and imperial preeminence of the United States through syndicating loans for new American railroads, providing military funding to Japan during the Russo-Japanese War, and actively support the Open Door Policy in China.

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Explaining Rodrigo Duterte’s Popularity

Duterte’s anti-drug policy targeted the poor, even though drug users came from all economic classes; yet his approval rating among the poor is high at a consistent figure above 70 percent. So the question remains, if his anti-drug policy is particularly harmful towards the poor, why did they support him and why are they still supporting him?

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China’s Search for Energy: Implications for U.S. Policymakers

China’s strategy to secure its energy resources can pose a serious geopolitical challenge for American diplomacy. In order to address the increasing complexity of energy geopolitics and diplomacy today, the U.S.-China bilateral relationship must be placed in their broader strategic, economic and political contexts in order to produce fruitful outcomes for both countries.

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India’s Indo-Pacific Strategy: Understanding India’s Spheres of Influence

The current evolution of the IOR and SCS into the larger Indo-Pacific region has refocused the world towards the multilateral interest of the States in the Asian maritime region. India’s position in the maritime region is currently at a crossroad, where it should no longer continue to press along its past, littoral-oriented maritime policy. This paper analyzes India’s stake in the newly adopted Indo-Pacific region vis-à-vis the South-East Asian Regional Security Complex, and its eastern neighbor- China. A change in Indian policy is imminent, and the paper looks to answer the fundamental question of ‘how should India’s policy evolve?’ A comprehensive insight into India’s larger interest in accordance with what the authors establish as ‘India’s 3 spheres of influence’, and establishing a three-pronged approach to maximize the output in these spheres, is what the paper recommends. An ever-changing domain of international relations is on the verge of a landmark transformation, and it’s imperative that India acknowledge this, with a gradual transformation in its own policies. The paper looks to create a strong blend of established theory, past state-practice, primary and secondary observations. Following this, it looks to serve as a framework on which India can reorient its policies whilst still retaining its image and interests it has secured over the course of its independence.

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Landmark Summit Between Trump and Kim

North Korea is the greatest threat to U.S. national security due to the rapid development of its nuclear and ballistic missile programs that can enable its brutal regime to launch the nuclear-tipped missiles at the U.S. homeland. Undoubtedly, the Trump administration faces a delicate juggling act to achieve all goals of national interest as well as to prevent North Korea’s rise from a pariah state unless it denuclearizes. However, this research article proves that despite a host of challenges, the historic summit still offers new opportunities to resolve the nuclear crisis with North Korea.

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The Social Dynamics post-Libyan's Mayor Assassination: A Social Constructivist View

Based on the social constructivist framework, the assassination of Libyan mayor from the city of Misrata represents a pivotal event in the modern history because it may reignite the Libyan multi-layered civil war, empower transnational terrorist networks, and further complicate the ongoing European Union (EU)’s refugee crisis. This research article employs various social constructivist approaches to describe and identify the social dynamics post-assassination of Libyan mayor Mohammed Estewi from the city of Misrata on December 17, 2017. The assassination of this individual, a key powerbroker in the Libyan reconciliation process, is very important since it eliminated a key moderating voice and dampened the hopes for a stable security settlement in Libya (Libya Herald, 2017). Such drastic event in the Libyan politics can not only further polarize the Libyan political arena but also negatively affect the global political system.

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This Side of Paradise: A glance into human rights violations in the Dominican Republic

This paper seeks to explore what roles labor migration, economy, international and transnational organizations, and historical strife play in modern Dominican apartheid. The author claims that on top of a historical anti-Haitian sentiment, a lack of suitable social welfare and education programs further the problem to the point of genocidal potential. It is also thought that pressure from transnational organizations, as well as programs through non-governmental organizations could help remedy the situation. However, with Dominican Republic anti-Haitian sentiment being so frequent, as well as relatively small in numbers when compared to other cases of genocidal violence, the international system must take a unique stance when coping with the issue.

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Putin LGBTQ+ Rights in Context: Russia’s Story

How has President Putin’s government influenced the violation of the rights of LGBTQ+ people in Russia? This paper examines the human rights violations committed against LGBTQ+ citizens in Russia from 2006 to the present. It fundamentally argues that the basis of anti-LGBTQ+ behavior finds its strength in the Russian home, Orthodox Church, and traditionalist government under Putin. The rights this paper focuses on are the right to freedom of expression, right to assembly, right to privacy, and freedom from discrimination. This analysis finds that under President Putin, LGBTQ+ citizens have experienced greater violence and oppression from a legal standpoint as well as an increase in vigilante violence encouraged by the government’s traditionalist ideology.

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Ben Franklin and the United States of Europe

For as long as there has been a United States, there have been Americans offering forward the American federal model as a way to cure Europe’s ills. If the American colonies could overcome their seemingly irreconcilable differences to build a federal state, why couldn’t the Europeans?

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Women’s Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Through the lens of constructivist feminism and realism, as well as current conditions of foreign policy initiatives between the United States and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, it can be determined that women’s rights issues have grown in importance in the international realm and are becoming a vital part of the foreign policy agenda in the developed world, particularly in the United States. The introduction of women’s rights into foreign policy initiatives by the United States has yet to be completely successful, however, the introduction, and effort in introducing, such initiatives is progress in and of itself. Though it is true that much still needs to be done, it cannot be denied that foreign policy focuses have shifted over time and women are becoming a more prominent topic of conversation all over the world. With the United States at the forefront pressing for more focus on women’s rights and women empowerment, it is only a matter of time before more countries push for the same goal, and inevitable progress will be made.

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