Throughout his campaign and administration, President Donald Trump has emphasized the need to decrease trade deficits with China through increasing tariffs as one of the core tenets of his pledge to “Make America Great Again”. While academics and other experts often criticize the President as an “economic dummy” with little understanding of public policy, these negative judgments may actually allow President Trump the possibility to market and implement policies in a way that a “traditional” administration could not.
In 2018, Spain increased its intake of Syrian refugees by 300%, accepting 38,451 documented Syrian refugees from the Mediterranean. Spain’s popular attitudes and political rhetoric towards Syrian refugees have also been markedly more positive in comparison to those from other European countries in face of rising populism and shifting public opinion. Will these policies and public sentiments create lasting effects in the coming months and years?
In October 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced her intention to step down from her position as the head of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), signalling the end of her thirteen year career in office. While frontrunner Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (AKK) has been elected as Merkel’s successor to the CDU in December, there remain important questions for the future direction of the party, German domestic policy, and the European Union itself.
The signing of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1988 was a pivotal moment in ending the nuclear arms race and the Cold War. Yet in October 2018, the United States under the Trump Administration announced its intention to withdraw from the treaty following violations of the treaty from both sides since 2001. If negotiations stagnate and powerful bodies like the United States and Russia continue to battle and build nuclear arms, there could be the evolution of a new nuclear arms race.
While China has frequently received international criticism for human rights abuses over the decades — violent suppression of protests, disappearances and arrests of “political dissidents,” tight control over religion, information, and speech — the Xinjiang re-educational camps may be one of the more pressing issues of human rights today. Yet, efforts at uncovering and condemning the camps have been complicated by media censorship, international diplomacy, as well as questions of national sovereignty.
A central piece of Xi Jinping’s Belt and Road Initiative lies in what has been titled the Chinese-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), an approximately $62 billion dollar investment to strengthen bilateral ties in infrastructure, scientific research, and defense. The newest developments in the CPEC initiative involve increasing air force and naval cooperation between China and Pakistan, which holds significant implications towards the Belt and Road Initiative and regional diplomacy.
The Syrian Civil War has waged on for more than 7 years, and the United States is likely to remain in Syria until there is wider political peace in an attempt to avoid a military resurgence similar to the case of Iraq in 2011. However, the Trump administration’s renewed commitment to stability in Syria will require more than just military presence.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action was a milestone of Barack Obama’s legacy and the history of US-Iran relations, but was recently overturned by the Trump administration in November. The move to re-impose sanctions will not only prove ineffective to bring about the outcomes his administration purportedly supports, but it will also reduce the US’s ability to engage with Iran and other countries and negotiate successfully in the long-term.
The past two decades have seen unprecedented growth in online usage and dependency within nations around the globe. The internet has facilitated communication, international trade, and even the spread and development of democracy, but has also generated a host of security concerns involving the information and safety of nations and their citizens. Due to the constant growth of this threat, the next major international conflict very well may be fought not on soil but over cyberspace
A new theme seems to have achieved play within the international cycle. Diplomacy is having its day once again for Morocco, as it is for several other North African states.
In October 2018, the United States Senate passed the Better Utilization of Investments Leading to Development (BUILD) Act, a $60 billion dollar foreign aid project directed towards developing countries. Despite the Trump Administration’s earlier rhetoric to decrease foreign aid, the new Act re-instills the importance of economic soft power in maintaining its international image and checking influence from competitors, particularly China in the Asia-Pacific region.
The United Nation General Assembly’s 73rd session (UNGA 73) was overwhelmed by President Trump’s speech against globalism, but there should have been more attention to representatives from the remaining 192 UN Member States. Among them, Nguyen Xuan Phuc, the Prime Minister of Vietnam, delivered a speech supporting the role of the United Nations and cooperation among member states.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has invited representatives of the Taliban, Afghan government, and delegates from 11 countries bordering Afghanistan—including China, Iran, and Pakistan—to peace talks in early September. However, without both Afghan and U.S. government representatives attending the peace talks, the extent to which the conference makes progress in negotiating with the Taliban is uncertain.
Since his instatement as both crown prince and Minister of Defense in 2017, Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) has sought to modernize Saudi Arabia, with the lifting of a long-standing ban preventing women from driving being an early indicator of change within the kingdom. Despite this sign of modernization, however, the Saudi government has continued to violate international human rights.
The United Nations Environment Programme believes that Lake Chad has lost 90% of its waters since 1960. A proposed canal may alleviate some of the economic and physical drain; yet this solution would also give rise to new security challenges and allow projections of Chinese power across Central Africa.
Confrontation, violence, and death have marked the "Great Return March", a series of protests in which residents of Gaza demand the right of return to ancestral family homes. Israel's violent response has earned international attention--and backlash.
As publicly shared information begins to circulate across the globe, so does privately shared information. As the investigation on Cambridge Analytica continues, we must consider the possibility that with the arrival of the internet the line separates the public and private has become significantly blurred.
On January 12th, United States President Donald Trump decided to waive sanctions on Iran in accordance to the Iran Nuclear deal instituted by former President Barack Obama, but reiterated his disdain for the deal and his plans to pull out if the deal is not renegotiated. If Trump does go through and withdraws from the Nuclear deal, it will have multiple devastating impacts that will damage U.S. interests in the Middle East and across the globe.
The 2018 National Congress has cemented Xi Jinping as China’s leader into the foreseeable future. This is a huge blow for pro-democracy activists within China and around the world.
Current President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi came into the presidency promising to clamp down on extremism, especially in the Sinai Peninsula. To that end, the regime has engaged in a series of drastic human rights abuses that includes mass arrests, torture, restrictions on free speech, and media blackouts. The Egyptian elections that are due to be held later this month appear to be neither free nor fair, with the current regime doing everything in its power to stifle political opposition and maintain its grip on the country.
The new focus in entertainment reflects the mission of Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman, as he seeks to dramatically shift the country economically, socially and culturally. But while these changes are progressive and positive economic and social steps for a country that has often been criticized by the Western world, Salman’s actions are perceived by many in the Kingdom as naked power grabbing moves, and, as a result, may lead to instability in a country that has been an island of stability in a highly volatile Middle East.
November 21, 2017 marked the end of Robert Mugabe’s three-and-a-half-decade tenure as the Zimbabwean head of state. One of the most important questions surrounding the fall of Mugabe is how a man who was once seen and revered as a central figure in Zimbabwe’s independence movement came to be deposed by his own military.
On February 5th, 2018, the President of the Republic of Maldives declared a 15-day state of emergency after the country’s Supreme Court ordered him to release a number of opposition political members that he had imprisoned.Beyond the image of an idyllic tropical paradise, the Maldives has firmly been placed on the map as an increasingly important geopolitical area in the Indian Ocean.
The 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics Games in South Korea is more than just another major sporting event for the host country. This February, South Korea marches into the Winter Olympics hand in hand with the North, after more than 20 years since the two countries last competed together as a united team in a major sporting event.
Recent reports by the New York Times and the Washington Post have revealed that the Egyptian and Israeli governments have been secretly working together on counterterrorism efforts in the Sinai Peninsula. The fact that the Egyptian and Israeli security apparatuses have been cooperating in recent years has never really been a secret, but the surprising thing about these reports is just how close that relationship has become.
While the rest of the developed world is gravitating away from the idea of an integrated global market, China is leaning into it. The Belt and Road Initiative is a call back to the age when China ran the world’s economy, an age the world may be about to witness again.
When jetting around the world, air travelers typically associate their journey with how long the security line was, or how bland the airplane food. But little do passengers know, the real battle is between airplane makers as they vie for market shares.
Among the silent ongoing conflicts in Southeast Asia, the Hmong problem in Laos remains as one of the longest unsolved crises in the region. Despite the magnitude of the bloodshed, the international community has not found a solution to the Hmong problem, and today many members of this ethnic are still struggling against governmental persecution.
Until recently, Hong Kong’s middle and upper classes lived in utopic ignorance regarding the welfare of foreign domestic helpers. However, news articles exposing the systematic abuse of foreign domestic workers published in recent years have opened Pandora’s Box.
Unfortunately, terrorism has become one of the major transnational threats of our times. The rise and expansion of groups like Al-Qaeda or ISIS, and the international scope of their attacks have harmed multiple societies, regardless of their location. However, Southeast Asia has emerged as a significant bastion for terrorists, and most specifically jihadists. Today, their safest haven in the region has become The Philippines, a country whose recent history has been marked by the attacks of different terrorist groups. However, what is the reason behind this geostrategic choice of Asian jihadists? What role does terrorism play in the Philippines today?
Martin Luther King offers progressives a cogent, authoritative critique of how the US government treats the disempowered, both at home and abroad. As progressives find their voice on foreign policy, King’s global moral vision offers a starting point.
A politician’s choice of meal and his table manners are revealing of his habits, personality, and mindset. In 2013, Xi Jinping’s unannounced visit to Qinfeng Restaurant, an ordinary chain bun shop in Beijing, surprised the entire nation. While China has since changed significantly and Xi’s public lunch is not likely to repeat, the event continues to remain vivid in Chinese public memory and internet more than five years on.
From Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan, United States counterinsurgency policies (COIN) strategy has led to marathons of expensive conflict by failing to balance “winning the hearts and minds of the people” and avoiding being seen as an occupying force. With an understanding of the role of politics and importance of population-centric strategy, perhaps United States counterinsurgency policies should begin to focus mostly on deterrence and negotiation, rather than force and occupation.
In December 2018, the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) imposed sanctions on three senior North Korean officials in response to the regime’s ongoing violation of human rights in accordance with the 2016 North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act (NKSPEA). The integration of human rights issues into global security negotiations is an effective foreign policy strategy that both serves as an additional mechanism of containment and a long-term tactic that can transform the norms of oppressive regimes.
To both China and the United States, Southeast Asia is an indispensable component of their regional and global grand strategies. Yet as trade tensions between China and the United States continue grow in the Asia-Pacific, ASEAN has intentionally maintained a neutral and balanced attitude.
Only twenty years ago, democracy was the champion system of the world. Today however, the very countries that are often regarded as the bastions of democracy and liberalism are electing the system’s downfall. So a question arises: do the people no longer want democracy? Or more importantly, is the world seeing a change in the will of the people?
Nauru is the smallest republic in the world, yet its significance towards Australia, New Zealand, and the broader South Pacific region is paramount. The re-opening of the Nauru Regional Processing Centre for refugees in 2016 has proven to be a rather problematic sticking point, offering challenges to local diplomatic relations as well as stimulating international discussion over fundamental questions of human rights. What would happen to Nauru next?
In July 2018, the Modi government released a draft of the National Register of Citizens as part of the 2016 Citizenship Amendment Bill, which seeks to remove Indian citizenship from individuals who arrived in the country after 2014. The new law effectively stripped four million Assamese residents of Indian citizenship, a targeted move of exclusion and marginalization that should outrage the global community. A broad front is necessary to stop this exclusionary agenda in its tracks, and this will require organizing within India as well as concerted uproar by the global community.
China has achieved an industrial revolution within twenty years that took many Western countries an entire century; yet, this accomplishment has also compacted a century of environmental pollution issues into a mere two decades. An important question to ask is how China — as the world’s next emerging superpower — will balance its sustainability efforts and economic growth.
The legacy of Ambassador Nikki Haley continues to be divided and her departure from the United Nations has left numerous challenges for the new United States ambassador to reform the organization in this increasingly globalized world. But just because the U.N. will need to address these challenges and criticisms, that should not be a reason to abandon our efforts all together.
Ukraine has a lengthy history of partnership with NATO dating back to the 1990’s, but there remains much to be done before the country can obtain membership status.
The African diaspora population has been consistently increasing in America, reaching a population of 2.1 million and making up 4.8% of the United States’ total immigrant population in 2015. Given the increasing presence of the African diaspora in the U.S., a central question remains, when will America began to educate itself about Africa and its people?
By choosing to sideline human rights concerns in an effort to address national security interests, the Trump administration has effectively given Egypt’s government a green light to continue to abuse human rights in the same way they have for years
One day more. Another day, another destiny. This never-ending road to Calvary. When I first heard Jean Valjean’s lament, the main character of the acclaimed Broadway musical and Victor Hugo’s masterpiece, I was only a six-year old child that hardly understood what being a refugee implied. Seventeen years later and after having devoted my graduate studies to the analysis of International Relations, I do not only understand the depth of Jean Valjean’s claim, but I can’t help to identify it in every refugee that has arrived at the European coastline since 2011.
While many Pakistani migrants have taken illegal measures to seek refuge in Europe, the international community has failed these immigrants, as it has denied them their basic rights as human beings to asylum and an adequate standard of life.
This year will prove to be a momentously telling year for Fiji. 2018 sees the second wave of democratic national elections since Frank Bainimarama’s coup, and is an event that will be closely observed by its estranged South Pacific neighbour, New Zealand, among others. If both nations recognise their shortcomings and atone for them, the storm clouds can and will part in the South Pacific.
One may argue that the winds of democratic change have finally reached the shores of Sub-Saharan Africa. But more importantly now, how can we create an electoral system which protects the rights, voices and needs of the despondent while still maintaining the legitimacy and the sanity of the electoral process?
In December 2017, Taiwan (Republic of China) became the first government to recognize Hakka as an official national language. For the Hakka, a ‘guest people’ without a homeland, preserving its language remains the most vital aspect of continuing the group’s culture, which has played such an indispensable role in shaping China and Southeast Asia in recent history.
The world has slowly descend back into a Cold War-era great power competition in cyberspace. The WannaCry attack is just one of the first consequences to be felt.
Despite declaring that he will give brokering a peace deal “one hell of a shot,” Trump has instead almost surely erased any hope of finding a resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict during his tenure.
Can the silence of the United Nations Security Council be attributed to its role in the events in Yemen?
Since the inception of the United Nations in 1945, the maintenance of international peace and security has been its top mission and central theme. However, recent history has proved that the organization, in its current form, is impotent at responding to massive abuses of human rights especially when it comes to genocides and ethnic cleansing.
While 2017 has seen the resurfacing of the chronic nuclear question plaguing international affairs, it also brings forth a hopeful reminder — the 30th anniversary of New Zealand’s stringent nuclear-free foreign policy. The South Pacific has proven that there remains a very real alternative to atomic diplomacy, and should be recognized for its efforts in advocating for communication and diplomacy rather than open atomic deterrence.
We might know all the facts and all the necessary steps that need to be taken not to reach the 2°C threshold. But actually acting upon this knowledge is a whole different story. We need to understand the importance of nature and how people are affected by it: not just factually, but emotionally. In a globalized world, we need to extend our empathy to all corners of the earth. Climate change knows no circle nor national border.
What sounds like the blurb on the back of a Tom Clancy book jacket is the actual series of events that has taken place over the past few weeks between Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.
A.I., Big Data, IoT, Cloud, 3D printing, Bio-engineering, Smart farming, Drones, Self-driving. All these big words signify the onset of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). What is unique about the term is that it was pointed out in advance, unlike the former three.
When it comes to economic assets, Saudi Arabia has historically missed out on leveraging its most important reserve, the capacity and capabilities of women. Indeed, women are the key ingredient to bringing about true transformation to our country. Today, under the visionary HRH Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, we are seeing the beginnings of this take shape.
The Rohingya crisis has recently saturated western media, but the persecution of these people has intensified within the last 200 years. Paralysis in the international community aggravates generations of abuse with consequences felt within and beyond Myanmar. The current situation is devolving into ethnic cleansing, threatening a "final solution" for the Rohingya people.
In 2011, the U.S. and its allies tried to forcefully install a democratic system in Libya by removing its president of 42 years, Muammar Gaddafi. He was killed soon after by militants. Gaddafi had succeeded in improving many societal services in Libya, including education, health, and housing. According to the World Bank, in 2010 Libya had the sixth highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa, and its population’s life expectancy ranked number one. In his 2011 remarks on Libya, while Gaddafi was still in power, President Obama said, “Of course, there is no question that Libya – and the world – will be better off with Gaddafi out of power. I, along with many other world leaders, have embraced that goal, and will actively pursue it through non-military means.” Unfortunately, Libya has been standing on shaky grounds ever since the U.S and its allies removed Gaddafi from power...
China is North Korea’s sole ally. Since intervening on behalf of North Korea during the Korean War, China has been a staunch supporter of the Communist North Korean government. In the past, China has done little to pressure North Korea to abandon its pursuit of nuclear weapons and its provocative missile tests, but that may soon change. I
With the modern-day economic and security threats of the world, national interests lie in the world order, not outside of it. There have been some critical missteps that have led to the attack on the system, but the solution exists, not through avoidance but through an embrace of change.
The United Nations Human Rights Council’s (UNHRC) “naming and shaming” system often have differential effects across regimes due to variations in power, alliances, and economic impact, and are often ineffective in improving human rights in violator states. The naming and shaming system cannot simply serve as a tool for states to prove their support for human rights and to gain political legitimacy at the expense of alienating other states, and should instead focus on the very agents that will bring about and uphold global norms and values.
While drought and other forms of environmental stresses do not directly cause the onset of civil wars, can they contribute to the outbreak of intrastate conflicts? In the Syrian war, drought increased unemployment in the agricultural-sector, and this resulted in the aggravation of preexisting grievances over water scarcity, which was a trigger of the conflict’s initial protests that sparked the onset of the conflict.
The “Schiff era” from 1880 to 1920 transformed the United States into the world’s foremost industrialized economy. As a banker and philanthropist, Jacob Schiff advanced the industrial and imperial preeminence of the United States through syndicating loans for new American railroads, providing military funding to Japan during the Russo-Japanese War, and actively support the Open Door Policy in China.
Duterte’s anti-drug policy targeted the poor, even though drug users came from all economic classes; yet his approval rating among the poor is high at a consistent figure above 70 percent. So the question remains, if his anti-drug policy is particularly harmful towards the poor, why did they support him and why are they still supporting him?
China’s strategy to secure its energy resources can pose a serious geopolitical challenge for American diplomacy. In order to address the increasing complexity of energy geopolitics and diplomacy today, the U.S.-China bilateral relationship must be placed in their broader strategic, economic and political contexts in order to produce fruitful outcomes for both countries.
Trump administration’s coercive diplomacy was effective in bringing North Korea to the negotiating table at the June 2018 landmark summit in Singapore.
One of the most pressing questions in peacekeeping today is whether and how peace can be achieved in Mali. This research is an attempt to provide a history of the conflict in Mali and insight on whether there is still hope for achieving sustainable peace in the conflict-affected nation.
War has always been a central and controversial feature of international relations. This comparative analysis examines the economic factors responsible for the causes of both interstate and intrastate wars.
The current evolution of the IOR and SCS into the larger Indo-Pacific region has refocused the world towards the multilateral interest of the States in the Asian maritime region. India’s position in the maritime region is currently at a crossroad, where it should no longer continue to press along its past, littoral-oriented maritime policy. This paper analyzes India’s stake in the newly adopted Indo-Pacific region vis-à-vis the South-East Asian Regional Security Complex, and its eastern neighbor- China. A change in Indian policy is imminent, and the paper looks to answer the fundamental question of ‘how should India’s policy evolve?’ A comprehensive insight into India’s larger interest in accordance with what the authors establish as ‘India’s 3 spheres of influence’, and establishing a three-pronged approach to maximize the output in these spheres, is what the paper recommends. An ever-changing domain of international relations is on the verge of a landmark transformation, and it’s imperative that India acknowledge this, with a gradual transformation in its own policies. The paper looks to create a strong blend of established theory, past state-practice, primary and secondary observations. Following this, it looks to serve as a framework on which India can reorient its policies whilst still retaining its image and interests it has secured over the course of its independence.
North Korea is the greatest threat to U.S. national security due to the rapid development of its nuclear and ballistic missile programs that can enable its brutal regime to launch the nuclear-tipped missiles at the U.S. homeland. Undoubtedly, the Trump administration faces a delicate juggling act to achieve all goals of national interest as well as to prevent North Korea’s rise from a pariah state unless it denuclearizes. However, this research article proves that despite a host of challenges, the historic summit still offers new opportunities to resolve the nuclear crisis with North Korea.
An argument for the continuation of American alliances in an era of increasing isolationism.
Based on the social constructivist framework, the assassination of Libyan mayor from the city of Misrata represents a pivotal event in the modern history because it may reignite the Libyan multi-layered civil war, empower transnational terrorist networks, and further complicate the ongoing European Union (EU)’s refugee crisis. This research article employs various social constructivist approaches to describe and identify the social dynamics post-assassination of Libyan mayor Mohammed Estewi from the city of Misrata on December 17, 2017. The assassination of this individual, a key powerbroker in the Libyan reconciliation process, is very important since it eliminated a key moderating voice and dampened the hopes for a stable security settlement in Libya (Libya Herald, 2017). Such drastic event in the Libyan politics can not only further polarize the Libyan political arena but also negatively affect the global political system.
This paper seeks to explore what roles labor migration, economy, international and transnational organizations, and historical strife play in modern Dominican apartheid. The author claims that on top of a historical anti-Haitian sentiment, a lack of suitable social welfare and education programs further the problem to the point of genocidal potential. It is also thought that pressure from transnational organizations, as well as programs through non-governmental organizations could help remedy the situation. However, with Dominican Republic anti-Haitian sentiment being so frequent, as well as relatively small in numbers when compared to other cases of genocidal violence, the international system must take a unique stance when coping with the issue.
A situation that is all the more striking for a country with such a unique historical experience.
How has President Putin’s government influenced the violation of the rights of LGBTQ+ people in Russia? This paper examines the human rights violations committed against LGBTQ+ citizens in Russia from 2006 to the present. It fundamentally argues that the basis of anti-LGBTQ+ behavior finds its strength in the Russian home, Orthodox Church, and traditionalist government under Putin. The rights this paper focuses on are the right to freedom of expression, right to assembly, right to privacy, and freedom from discrimination. This analysis finds that under President Putin, LGBTQ+ citizens have experienced greater violence and oppression from a legal standpoint as well as an increase in vigilante violence encouraged by the government’s traditionalist ideology.
For as long as there has been a United States, there have been Americans offering forward the American federal model as a way to cure Europe’s ills. If the American colonies could overcome their seemingly irreconcilable differences to build a federal state, why couldn’t the Europeans?
Through the lens of constructivist feminism and realism, as well as current conditions of foreign policy initiatives between the United States and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, it can be determined that women’s rights issues have grown in importance in the international realm and are becoming a vital part of the foreign policy agenda in the developed world, particularly in the United States. The introduction of women’s rights into foreign policy initiatives by the United States has yet to be completely successful, however, the introduction, and effort in introducing, such initiatives is progress in and of itself. Though it is true that much still needs to be done, it cannot be denied that foreign policy focuses have shifted over time and women are becoming a more prominent topic of conversation all over the world. With the United States at the forefront pressing for more focus on women’s rights and women empowerment, it is only a matter of time before more countries push for the same goal, and inevitable progress will be made.
This paper seeks to understand the extent to which the strains in the Sino-Indian relations are a potential stumbling block for the BRICS association composed of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The key finding of this analysis is the extent to which the Beijing-New Delhi relationship is durable precisely because India and China have gained proficiency for mutual trading and proclaiming cordial relations with one another while at the same time engaging in standoffs and territorial disputes. Seemingly unique in international affairs, a similar state of relations and foreign policy is however exhibited by China in relation to Japan, South Korea and the US; thus the cheek-by-jowl coexistence of trade and apparent strategic tensions in the China-India relationship can be viewed in these lenses, and in that sense is nothing unique and is in fact cause to project that the relationship is bound to be tension-fueled and perhaps escalate but not erupt while at the same time not undermining trade relations. Furthermore, shared regional responsibilities, nuclear deterrence, alliance structures and deep trade ties are there to further make the prospect of an outright conflict between the two growing powers that much more unlikely. To that degree, the BRICS association can be said to be relatively secure from unravelling on account of Sino-Indian strains.
The resolution of maritime disputes entails a superlative diplomatic effort, which may sometimes leave behind a sense of grievance among the countries involved in the contest. This is not, however, always the case.
The integrity of the European Union has been called into question after one of its leading members, the United Kingdom, voted to exist the community in a move known as 'Brexit'. What possible scenarios could result from this first step towards union dissolution? And how would European security be impacted if a full union break-up were to take place?
What if every global development project was designed by people in the villages and cities who were the actual beneficiaries of that project...Could this truly work, or is it just a grand-sounding idea?
Sino-African relations date back to the early 1950s and the emergence of the People's Republic of China as an international actor, but, since 2000, China's presence in Africa has exploded. Beijing's involvement extends beyond trade to influence diverse sectors, such as infrastructure construction, national development funds, natural resource extraction, health, and a Chinese migration pattern that has now settled more than 1 million Chinese in Africa. [Please note that this article is in French]
Cultural monuments and sites have historical and personal significance for nations. A radical group may target such sites to demonstrate a blatant and intentional disregard for a culture’s history and to display the scope of the group’s power over a population.
John Le Carré’s novel effectively illustrates the realities of the global intelligence community during the Cold War era and illustrates key components about CI tradecraft, politics, and bureaucracy.
Through the newspapers and interviews, it can be inferred that the stakeholders on Easter Island have a collective responsibility to work for more sustainable tourism to preserve not only the environment but also the culture and dignity of the indigenous Rapa Nui.
In this view, it can be rightly assessed that if China’s current identity is based on the past atrocities motivated by Japanese aggression, then in future discourse China will continue to interpret every Japanese action through this historical prism.
While sovereignty movements in the Caribbean may be based on strong sentiments of solidarity, unavoidable external forces will significantly hamper success. In defining the accomplishments of a political struggle, protestors must thus look beyond the failure to achieve impossible feats and instead emphasize the “‘unspectacular’ transformations that abound in the daily re-creations of ordinary life” (Bonilla 2015:172). Simply put, activists must not be fooled by the mirage of sovereignty.
By identifying the Islamic State’s primary communication methods and tactics used to establish a growing Indo-Pacific presence, the latter portion will provide a fundamental framework as to how regional actors can expectantly mitigate and reduce the threat to security and stability through the fifth domain.
Although Internet censorship maintains the Chinese Communist Party's ultimate authority, it creates domestic and international consequences that tarnish the Party’s image.
Travelers, in my opinion, are voluntary diplomats, recognizing the weight of their actions and words for how others see their home country and its people. Voluntary diplomacy means opening up to new people and experiences, even when it isn’t easy.
“Shabbat shalom!” “No thank you” I replied with a bashful smile, assuming that people on the street were trying to sell me something. While the confused looks clued me in that something was strange, I failed to realize that the strange thing was me until hours later when the pieces came together: Shabbat is the Sabbath and the phrase is simply a friendly greeting. As the individuals I came across on the streets of Tel Aviv, Israel on that Friday morning likely deduced, I not only did not know any Hebrew – I am also not Jewish. After filtering through the usual questions – you’re American? (Yes.) Are you on birthright? (No.) Are you Jewish? (No.) – there was inevitably some confusion as to why I was in Israel.
Just shy of his 25th birthday, my great-uncle S/Sgt. Oscar Rome was killed when his B-17 was shot down by Nazi fighters over Yugoslavia. 73 years later, I visited the crash site in rural Slovenia and found that his sacrifice had become a symbol of American-Slovenian friendship.
"The country teaches you to find an inner strength. It is something you may not know exists, but is almost certainly present in all of us." While research on the dairy value chain was the professional culmination of her internship in Addis Ababa, Rachel Brock's personal experiences are what lastingly defined her summer in Ethiopia.
"Beijing is a particularly interesting place as an environmentalist. When daily life is directly affected by pollution, it becomes blatantly clear that something needs to be done. Urgently." Explore how Cynthia's summer spent as a policy intern at a Chinese environmental innovation center restored her hope for the climate movement.
Travel through Italy with Marco DiLeonardo's account of his study abroad experience in Bologna, and how his personal roots to the region enhanced his experience.
Negotiations strategies, dispute settlement methods, and how to end the war with Colombia's FARC rebels: University of Pennsylvania junior Teddie Levenfiche reflects upon his experiences interning in the Colombian Congress.
[Article in Spanish] Located in the core of the South China Sea, the Spratly Islands have witnessed successive disputes between the surrounding Asian countries, which have sought to annex them to their territories during the last forty years. The main reason behind this geostrategic conflict is the privileged position of this archipelago, which is placed in one of the most traversed trade routes of the world. In addition, their richness in natural resources, including coal, gas and fishing reserves makes the Spratly Islands one of the crowning jewels of the South China Sea. Since Japan renounced to its rights of claim over them with the signature of the Peace Treaty of San Francisco in 1951, the race towards their control has resulted in several disputes between China, Taiwan, The Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam. Regardless of the International law sentences and the mediating effort of ASEAN, these countries are still de facto involved in a silent battle for the control of the Spratly. Therefore, the resolution of this conflict accounts for one of the most defying challenges of modern Southeast Asian diplomacy.
[Article in Spanish] Since the birth of the modern State of Cambodia, the International Community has questioned the transparency of its political system, apparently veiled under the principles of deliberative democracy. During the 30 years of governance of its prime minister Hun Sen, corruption and fraud have shadowed elections, and numerous cases of intimacy and threats have been reported prior to the celebration of these kind of processes. The fear of losing its hegemonic position has led Hun Sen to start a cleansing campaign against non-aligned media and civil organizations, aiming to eliminate any potential obstacles on its race to the 2018 elections. However, it has not been until the detention of the leader of the opposition party CNRP Kem Sokha on treason charges when the International Community has demanded the cease of these anti-democratic actions. Nonetheless, the past behavior of the Cambodian leader regarding these kind of global complaints leaves small room for hope for those who dream about a truly democratic Cambodia.