Since taking office, US President Trump has time and again highlighted the lack of Transatlantic burden-sharing on security and demanded that European NATO allies strengthen their spending and capacity on defense. More recently, Washington had also began criticizing the EU’s integrative defense initiatives, accusing Brussels for pursuing an “industrial policy under the veneer of a security policy.” Can the US Trump Administration balance and simultaneously pursue both of these seemingly contradictory goals?
Since the Opening Up and Reform of 1978, China has maintained an impressive average GDP growth rate at or above 9% and successfully lifted over 700 million people out of abject poverty. At the same time, the country’s social inequality has soared and caught the attention of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leadership in the last decade. While Xi has prioritized the reduction of rural poverty and build a ‘comprehensively well-off society’, China’s journey towards social equality has been—and will continue to be—a long and arduous one.
On May 26th 2019, the three-day election marathon for the European Parliament (EP) finally came to an end, but the continent is still struggling to process its conflicting results. However, if there is one trend that has transcended national borders, it is the increasing fragmentation of the political system. With the contentious EU budget negotiations, Brexit and potentially also a trade war with the United States all coming up in the fall, the new EC President better get off to a running start – whomever it may be.
After the collapse of US-North Korea negotiations in Hanoi earlier this March, Kim Jong-un has begun to pursue a foreign policy strategy that may not necessarily include a diplomatic relationship with the United States. This follows Kim’s meeting with Russian President Putin in Vladivostok in April, a move that aims to improve North Korea’s economic partnerships and increase leverage in future negotiations with the United States. If the United States does not respond to North Korea’s shifting strategy, tensions may rise once again.
In June 2019, the United States Trump administration is scheduled to unveil the new White House plan, which involve the reinstitution of funds for Palestine but no two-state solution. The new plan has come under criticism from Mohammad Shtayyeh, Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority, as well as over thirty politicians from the European Union. As the Trump administration continues to endorse controversial Israeli policies,it threatens to end the credibility of the United States as a trustworthy third-party and sabotage the prospects of reaching an agreement in the Israeli-Palestine conflict.
In April 2019, three Russian ships docked in Manila for five-day “goodwill visit” amid the escalating tensions in the South China Sea. The move follows President Duterte’s three foreign policy goals of separating the Philippines’ foreign policy from the United States, establishing stronger ties with non-traditions partners like Russia, Japan, and India, and improving relations with China. As the foreign policy of the Philippines becomes increasingly balanced and independent, what are the implications for other Southeast Asian states and the United States?
Last December, Shinzo Abe’s cabinet approved plans to significantly increase Japan’s defense spending. The new five-year defense plan is seen as a shift away from Japan’s constitutionally-enshrined principles of pacifism. While the Abe administration maintains that the budget changes are in response to the rise of perceived regional threats, Japanese public opinion remains sharply divided.
The past month has seen a number of highly anticipated votes in European Union nations. As the United Kingdom struggles to determine the process of executing Brexit (if at all), Theresa May survived her attempted removal 325 to 306. Economically distraught Greece has fared no better as embattled Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras narrowly escapes a vote of no-confidence by a mere 3 tallies to remain in power. Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez has recently become the third EU leader to be faced with disruption of his direct political power. The outlook for the coming months in European politics is one filled with legislative strife for nations both at home and throughout the EU
After more than half a century of mistrust and tension, North Korea and the United States have held bilateral summits in Southeast Asia for two consecutive years. Why is ASEAN and Vietnam such a favorable destination for such historic meetings between the two countries?
Almost three months since it first erupted, the Yellow Vest protests in Paris still rages on. The Yellow Vest protests have since transformed into a general anti-government movement with no clearly defined agenda apart from a common display of frustration towards an unresponsive and out-of-touch government. Rumors in French media have hinted at a potential nation-wide referendum on May 26th this year. If true, this would be the first French referendum in 14 years, with strong implications for France and the European Union.
Eight years on from the “Arab Spring” of 2011, Tunisia continues to struggle with questions of economy and identity. While Tunisian President Beji Essebsi has implemented a number of initiatives to combat extremism and improve regional and international trade, the remains much uncertainty in the country’s political structure and domestic economic situation.
In January 2019, the Human Rights Watch organization published a report titled “No Escape from Hell: EU Policies Contribute to Abuse of Migrants in Libya”, which documents instances of severe overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, and malnutrition in Libyan detention centers. Today, human rights abuses against migrants remain rampant in Libya as the country continue to serve as a departure point into Europe for migrants fleeing from economic hardship, violence, and discrimination in their home countries in Africa.
According to the United Nations, today 79% of Yemen’s population is in poverty, compared with 49% just two years ago. Of the roughly 28.5 million people living in the country, 22 million are in need of some form of humanitarian assistance. From a human security standpoint, ending the conflict in Yemen is as much a mission to secure regional stability as a pursuit to ensure civilian wellbeing.
In 2011, the World Health Organization developed a strategic document called the Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint, which aims to establish indicators for vaccine safety in all countries. Yet as of 2018, vaccination schemes around the world continue to undergo a number of setbacks, including a major vaccine scandal in China and failure to prevent measles outbreaks in Thailand and the United States. Despite current progress, there remain much to be done by governments to increase health standards transparency and consideration for communities that they serve.
Throughout his campaign and administration, President Donald Trump has emphasized the need to decrease trade deficits with China through increasing tariffs as one of the core tenets of his pledge to “Make America Great Again”. While academics and other experts often criticize the President as an “economic dummy” with little understanding of public policy, these negative judgments may actually allow President Trump the possibility to market and implement policies in a way that a “traditional” administration could not.
In 2018, Spain increased its intake of Syrian refugees by 300%, accepting 38,451 documented Syrian refugees from the Mediterranean. Spain’s popular attitudes and political rhetoric towards Syrian refugees have also been markedly more positive in comparison to those from other European countries in face of rising populism and shifting public opinion. Will these policies and public sentiments create lasting effects in the coming months and years?
In October 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced her intention to step down from her position as the head of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), signalling the end of her thirteen year career in office. While frontrunner Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (AKK) has been elected as Merkel’s successor to the CDU in December, there remain important questions for the future direction of the party, German domestic policy, and the European Union itself.
The signing of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1988 was a pivotal moment in ending the nuclear arms race and the Cold War. Yet in October 2018, the United States under the Trump Administration announced its intention to withdraw from the treaty following violations of the treaty from both sides since 2001. If negotiations stagnate and powerful bodies like the United States and Russia continue to battle and build nuclear arms, there could be the evolution of a new nuclear arms race.
While China has frequently received international criticism for human rights abuses over the decades — violent suppression of protests, disappearances and arrests of “political dissidents,” tight control over religion, information, and speech — the Xinjiang re-educational camps may be one of the more pressing issues of human rights today. Yet, efforts at uncovering and condemning the camps have been complicated by media censorship, international diplomacy, as well as questions of national sovereignty.
A central piece of Xi Jinping’s Belt and Road Initiative lies in what has been titled the Chinese-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), an approximately $62 billion dollar investment to strengthen bilateral ties in infrastructure, scientific research, and defense. The newest developments in the CPEC initiative involve increasing air force and naval cooperation between China and Pakistan, which holds significant implications towards the Belt and Road Initiative and regional diplomacy.
The Syrian Civil War has waged on for more than 7 years, and the United States is likely to remain in Syria until there is wider political peace in an attempt to avoid a military resurgence similar to the case of Iraq in 2011. However, the Trump administration’s renewed commitment to stability in Syria will require more than just military presence.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action was a milestone of Barack Obama’s legacy and the history of US-Iran relations, but was recently overturned by the Trump administration in November. The move to re-impose sanctions will not only prove ineffective to bring about the outcomes his administration purportedly supports, but it will also reduce the US’s ability to engage with Iran and other countries and negotiate successfully in the long-term.
The past two decades have seen unprecedented growth in online usage and dependency within nations around the globe. The internet has facilitated communication, international trade, and even the spread and development of democracy, but has also generated a host of security concerns involving the information and safety of nations and their citizens. Due to the constant growth of this threat, the next major international conflict very well may be fought not on soil but over cyberspace
A new theme seems to have achieved play within the international cycle. Diplomacy is having its day once again for Morocco, as it is for several other North African states.
In October 2018, the United States Senate passed the Better Utilization of Investments Leading to Development (BUILD) Act, a $60 billion dollar foreign aid project directed towards developing countries. Despite the Trump Administration’s earlier rhetoric to decrease foreign aid, the new Act re-instills the importance of economic soft power in maintaining its international image and checking influence from competitors, particularly China in the Asia-Pacific region.
The United Nation General Assembly’s 73rd session (UNGA 73) was overwhelmed by President Trump’s speech against globalism, but there should have been more attention to representatives from the remaining 192 UN Member States. Among them, Nguyen Xuan Phuc, the Prime Minister of Vietnam, delivered a speech supporting the role of the United Nations and cooperation among member states.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has invited representatives of the Taliban, Afghan government, and delegates from 11 countries bordering Afghanistan—including China, Iran, and Pakistan—to peace talks in early September. However, without both Afghan and U.S. government representatives attending the peace talks, the extent to which the conference makes progress in negotiating with the Taliban is uncertain.
Since his instatement as both crown prince and Minister of Defense in 2017, Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) has sought to modernize Saudi Arabia, with the lifting of a long-standing ban preventing women from driving being an early indicator of change within the kingdom. Despite this sign of modernization, however, the Saudi government has continued to violate international human rights.
The United Nations Environment Programme believes that Lake Chad has lost 90% of its waters since 1960. A proposed canal may alleviate some of the economic and physical drain; yet this solution would also give rise to new security challenges and allow projections of Chinese power across Central Africa.
Confrontation, violence, and death have marked the "Great Return March", a series of protests in which residents of Gaza demand the right of return to ancestral family homes. Israel's violent response has earned international attention--and backlash.
In late June 2019, in the ASEAN 34th Bangkok Summit, ten member-states agreed to adopt the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP). Throughout the summit, ASEAN acknowledged both opportunities and collective challenges facing the regional organization, and alertly demanded an urgent response to those, leading to the creation of AOIP. ASEAN must take the lead in shaping its own economic and security architecture and to ensure that such dynamic continues to bring about peace, stability, and prosperity for people in Southeast Asia and in the wider Indo-Pacific area.
Earlier this year between April 25-27, Beijing hosted the second Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Forum with attendance of 36 heads of state, including 9 from Southeast Asia. Yet, the future of the BRI in the region is more complicated than meets the eye due to a range of issues ranging from BRI’s vagueness to the complicated triangular relationship among China, the United States, and Southeast Asia.
The combative action of shooting down an unmanned US reconnaissance drone by Iran has raised reasonable concerns among the international community about the possibility of an impending war between the sparring nations. If events continue along a path analogous to what we have been observing over the past week, the likelihood of a trigger-happy incident occurring that sparks a wider conflict unfortunately increases, at which point the legal considerations and cautions of the international community may be thrown to the wind.
Can terrorism ever be justified? While ‘terrorism’ is a nebulous term that is often difficult to justify due to the predominantly negative view of the subject, one can apply the concepts of jus ad bellum towards the phenomena, namely the right authority, just cause, last resort, as well as the reasonable hope of success of a violent act. A closer case study of Al Qaeda against this definition may indeed shed light upon the original question and even bring about another controversial but thought-provoking perspective.
Commemorating the 40th anniversary of the “Message to Compatriots in Taiwan”, Chinese President Xi Jinping reaffirmed the country’s commitment towards Reunification with Taiwan as espoused by the landmark 1979 proclamation. On the other side of the Strait, Taiwanese (Republic of China) leader Tsai Ing-wen continues to stress the irreconcilable differences as an insurmountable barrier to the People’s Republic’s propose “One Country, Two Systems” reunification plan. As Xi and Tsai have both taken hardline stances on the subject, the possibility for compromise on the subject may continue to dwindle in the near future.
In 2019, Beijing continues to escalate a domestic campaign of detention and surveillance against the Uyghurs, a Muslim Turkic minority that primarily inhabit China’s far-western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. While some members of the United Nations, especially Muslim allies of China, support China’s assertion that the reeducation camps are a national security project to combat extremism and terrorism, others have called to stop the persecution. Why haven’t they?
While imperialism has often led to disastrous outcomes for colonized states, Britain’s colonization of Hong Kong was an outlier in almost all respects. Though the United Kingdom returned Hong Kong to China in 1997, the succeeding decades have seen increasing tensions between Beijing and the Special Administrative Region, which culminated in the 2014 Umbrella Movement. Five years on, how has the situation developed?
It seems that Samuel Huntington’s “The Clash of Civilizations.” has drawn the ire of Stephen Walt, numerous Foreign Affairs scholars, and students of IR everywhere. Yet, in the era of ‘globalization’, culture is taking a more prominent place on the global stage, including the waves of right wing populism throughout the West and rise of illiberal states in a number of other states. As international relations theory today is largely dominated by the tenets of realism and liberalism, Huntington perhaps suggests an unconsidered factor: culture.
While it seems that China is poised to become a dominant power along with the United States, and the world will become more interconnected through globalization, these two changes in the future world order cannot steer the world toward more reciprocity. What would the future world order look like under a multipolar system?
In recent years, Venezuela has faced shortages, hectic inflation, and political repression; yet, the United States, Russia and other foreign powers have chosen now to pay acute attention. The U.S. must not fall back upon the historical interventions made in Latin America with the justification of promoting democracy and combating communism. The country must not turn into yet another battleground for Cold War powers.
On 25 November 2018, Russian ships carrying elite Spetsnaz soldiers seized two Ukrainian naval gunships, killing of six Ukrainian sailors and capturing thirty more. Tensions between Ukraine and Russia reached a climax last November and have since remained high. As the European Union continues to fracture and as the United States Trump administration continues to hold a soft spot for Russia, future acts of aggression will become more likely.
While China has made considerable strides in aligning its economy more with market principles following Deng Xiaoping’s 1978 reforms, the Chinese government is still heavily involved in many aspects of the economy, particularly the real estate sector. As China faces its slowest growth rate in 28 years, the country’s real estate market could potentially act as the amplifier of initial economic stagnation that may lead to regional and global implications.
Between 2016 and 2018, Japan’s Abe administration has successfully used its economic power to support Syrian refugees globally, providing almost $3b USD to assist refugees and migrants. However, Japan has only recognized six Syrians refugees as of 2015. In the realm of refugee status recognition, there is still much that can be done not only for Syrian refugees, but for all refugees who desire to come to Japan.
Drone warfare has, in recent years, become a tactic that the United States has become increasingly reliant on. Warfare is already brutal and inhumane when people are involved, and deploying tools of war that can’t discern between threats and innocents will only worsen this.
Martin Luther King offers progressives a cogent, authoritative critique of how the US government treats the disempowered, both at home and abroad. As progressives find their voice on foreign policy, King’s global moral vision offers a starting point.
A politician’s choice of meal and his table manners are revealing of his habits, personality, and mindset. In 2013, Xi Jinping’s unannounced visit to Qinfeng Restaurant, an ordinary chain bun shop in Beijing, surprised the entire nation. While China has since changed significantly and Xi’s public lunch is not likely to repeat, the event continues to remain vivid in Chinese public memory and internet more than five years on.
From Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan, United States counterinsurgency policies (COIN) strategy has led to marathons of expensive conflict by failing to balance “winning the hearts and minds of the people” and avoiding being seen as an occupying force. With an understanding of the role of politics and importance of population-centric strategy, perhaps United States counterinsurgency policies should begin to focus mostly on deterrence and negotiation, rather than force and occupation.
In December 2018, the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) imposed sanctions on three senior North Korean officials in response to the regime’s ongoing violation of human rights in accordance with the 2016 North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act (NKSPEA). The integration of human rights issues into global security negotiations is an effective foreign policy strategy that both serves as an additional mechanism of containment and a long-term tactic that can transform the norms of oppressive regimes.
To both China and the United States, Southeast Asia is an indispensable component of their regional and global grand strategies. Yet as trade tensions between China and the United States continue grow in the Asia-Pacific, ASEAN has intentionally maintained a neutral and balanced attitude.
Only twenty years ago, democracy was the champion system of the world. Today however, the very countries that are often regarded as the bastions of democracy and liberalism are electing the system’s downfall. So a question arises: do the people no longer want democracy? Or more importantly, is the world seeing a change in the will of the people?
Nauru is the smallest republic in the world, yet its significance towards Australia, New Zealand, and the broader South Pacific region is paramount. The re-opening of the Nauru Regional Processing Centre for refugees in 2016 has proven to be a rather problematic sticking point, offering challenges to local diplomatic relations as well as stimulating international discussion over fundamental questions of human rights. What would happen to Nauru next?
In July 2018, the Modi government released a draft of the National Register of Citizens as part of the 2016 Citizenship Amendment Bill, which seeks to remove Indian citizenship from individuals who arrived in the country after 2014. The new law effectively stripped four million Assamese residents of Indian citizenship, a targeted move of exclusion and marginalization that should outrage the global community. A broad front is necessary to stop this exclusionary agenda in its tracks, and this will require organizing within India as well as concerted uproar by the global community.
China has achieved an industrial revolution within twenty years that took many Western countries an entire century; yet, this accomplishment has also compacted a century of environmental pollution issues into a mere two decades. An important question to ask is how China — as the world’s next emerging superpower — will balance its sustainability efforts and economic growth.
The legacy of Ambassador Nikki Haley continues to be divided and her departure from the United Nations has left numerous challenges for the new United States ambassador to reform the organization in this increasingly globalized world. But just because the U.N. will need to address these challenges and criticisms, that should not be a reason to abandon our efforts all together.
Ukraine has a lengthy history of partnership with NATO dating back to the 1990’s, but there remains much to be done before the country can obtain membership status.
The African diaspora population has been consistently increasing in America, reaching a population of 2.1 million and making up 4.8% of the United States’ total immigrant population in 2015. Given the increasing presence of the African diaspora in the U.S., a central question remains, when will America began to educate itself about Africa and its people?
By choosing to sideline human rights concerns in an effort to address national security interests, the Trump administration has effectively given Egypt’s government a green light to continue to abuse human rights in the same way they have for years
One day more. Another day, another destiny. This never-ending road to Calvary. When I first heard Jean Valjean’s lament, the main character of the acclaimed Broadway musical and Victor Hugo’s masterpiece, I was only a six-year old child that hardly understood what being a refugee implied. Seventeen years later and after having devoted my graduate studies to the analysis of International Relations, I do not only understand the depth of Jean Valjean’s claim, but I can’t help to identify it in every refugee that has arrived at the European coastline since 2011.
While many Pakistani migrants have taken illegal measures to seek refuge in Europe, the international community has failed these immigrants, as it has denied them their basic rights as human beings to asylum and an adequate standard of life.
This year will prove to be a momentously telling year for Fiji. 2018 sees the second wave of democratic national elections since Frank Bainimarama’s coup, and is an event that will be closely observed by its estranged South Pacific neighbour, New Zealand, among others. If both nations recognise their shortcomings and atone for them, the storm clouds can and will part in the South Pacific.
A multilateral system requires a hegemonic presence to remain secure by exploring the creation and proliferation haute finance and its relationship to the system’s hegemon. Haute finance has become the foundation of international cooperation, and even though it is a nonstate actor, literature has shown that it came into existence through Britain’s role as the European hegemon and has endured with the United States at the helm.
The Indo-Pacific region is a domain of ever-growing conflict involving numerous nations in economic and political disputes. China, as a nation is expanding its power and presence throughout the region claiming majority of the nautical area and expanding towards the Indian Ocean from the Pacific, in an expansionist approach to Indo-Pacific dominance presenting a national threat to India, ASEAN, and the United States of America as it strives in its objective to govern the Indo-Pacific region for energy security and trade supremacy. This article will focus on three aspects. It will first analyze India’s maritime interest in the Indo-Pacific Region, explore India’s Act East policy and its expansion with the littoral states of ASEAN, and examine the impact of rising tensions in the Indo-Pacific on the Western hemisphere and beyond.
A major debate about the United Nations is whether the organization has been effective in promoting human rights. From 1999 to 2006, the United Nations operated in the aftermath of the Sierra Leone conflict through the three bodies of the Human Rights Council, the Office of the High Commissioner, and the Special Court of Sierra Leone. While the three UN bodies functioned differently and often depended on the local governments’ ability and willingness to cooperate, they were overall able to improve the human rights situation of the country.
With the modern-day economic and security threats of the world, national interests lie in the world order, not outside of it. There have been some critical missteps that have led to the attack on the system, but the solution exists, not through avoidance but through an embrace of change.
The United Nations Human Rights Council’s (UNHRC) “naming and shaming” system often have differential effects across regimes due to variations in power, alliances, and economic impact, and are often ineffective in improving human rights in violator states. The naming and shaming system cannot simply serve as a tool for states to prove their support for human rights and to gain political legitimacy at the expense of alienating other states, and should instead focus on the very agents that will bring about and uphold global norms and values.
While drought and other forms of environmental stresses do not directly cause the onset of civil wars, can they contribute to the outbreak of intrastate conflicts? In the Syrian war, drought increased unemployment in the agricultural-sector, and this resulted in the aggravation of preexisting grievances over water scarcity, which was a trigger of the conflict’s initial protests that sparked the onset of the conflict.
The “Schiff era” from 1880 to 1920 transformed the United States into the world’s foremost industrialized economy. As a banker and philanthropist, Jacob Schiff advanced the industrial and imperial preeminence of the United States through syndicating loans for new American railroads, providing military funding to Japan during the Russo-Japanese War, and actively support the Open Door Policy in China.
Duterte’s anti-drug policy targeted the poor, even though drug users came from all economic classes; yet his approval rating among the poor is high at a consistent figure above 70 percent. So the question remains, if his anti-drug policy is particularly harmful towards the poor, why did they support him and why are they still supporting him?
China’s strategy to secure its energy resources can pose a serious geopolitical challenge for American diplomacy. In order to address the increasing complexity of energy geopolitics and diplomacy today, the U.S.-China bilateral relationship must be placed in their broader strategic, economic and political contexts in order to produce fruitful outcomes for both countries.
Trump administration’s coercive diplomacy was effective in bringing North Korea to the negotiating table at the June 2018 landmark summit in Singapore.
One of the most pressing questions in peacekeeping today is whether and how peace can be achieved in Mali. This research is an attempt to provide a history of the conflict in Mali and insight on whether there is still hope for achieving sustainable peace in the conflict-affected nation.
War has always been a central and controversial feature of international relations. This comparative analysis examines the economic factors responsible for the causes of both interstate and intrastate wars.
The current evolution of the IOR and SCS into the larger Indo-Pacific region has refocused the world towards the multilateral interest of the States in the Asian maritime region. India’s position in the maritime region is currently at a crossroad, where it should no longer continue to press along its past, littoral-oriented maritime policy. This paper analyzes India’s stake in the newly adopted Indo-Pacific region vis-à-vis the South-East Asian Regional Security Complex, and its eastern neighbor- China. A change in Indian policy is imminent, and the paper looks to answer the fundamental question of ‘how should India’s policy evolve?’ A comprehensive insight into India’s larger interest in accordance with what the authors establish as ‘India’s 3 spheres of influence’, and establishing a three-pronged approach to maximize the output in these spheres, is what the paper recommends. An ever-changing domain of international relations is on the verge of a landmark transformation, and it’s imperative that India acknowledge this, with a gradual transformation in its own policies. The paper looks to create a strong blend of established theory, past state-practice, primary and secondary observations. Following this, it looks to serve as a framework on which India can reorient its policies whilst still retaining its image and interests it has secured over the course of its independence.
North Korea is the greatest threat to U.S. national security due to the rapid development of its nuclear and ballistic missile programs that can enable its brutal regime to launch the nuclear-tipped missiles at the U.S. homeland. Undoubtedly, the Trump administration faces a delicate juggling act to achieve all goals of national interest as well as to prevent North Korea’s rise from a pariah state unless it denuclearizes. However, this research article proves that despite a host of challenges, the historic summit still offers new opportunities to resolve the nuclear crisis with North Korea.
An argument for the continuation of American alliances in an era of increasing isolationism.
Based on the social constructivist framework, the assassination of Libyan mayor from the city of Misrata represents a pivotal event in the modern history because it may reignite the Libyan multi-layered civil war, empower transnational terrorist networks, and further complicate the ongoing European Union (EU)’s refugee crisis. This research article employs various social constructivist approaches to describe and identify the social dynamics post-assassination of Libyan mayor Mohammed Estewi from the city of Misrata on December 17, 2017. The assassination of this individual, a key powerbroker in the Libyan reconciliation process, is very important since it eliminated a key moderating voice and dampened the hopes for a stable security settlement in Libya (Libya Herald, 2017). Such drastic event in the Libyan politics can not only further polarize the Libyan political arena but also negatively affect the global political system.
This paper seeks to explore what roles labor migration, economy, international and transnational organizations, and historical strife play in modern Dominican apartheid. The author claims that on top of a historical anti-Haitian sentiment, a lack of suitable social welfare and education programs further the problem to the point of genocidal potential. It is also thought that pressure from transnational organizations, as well as programs through non-governmental organizations could help remedy the situation. However, with Dominican Republic anti-Haitian sentiment being so frequent, as well as relatively small in numbers when compared to other cases of genocidal violence, the international system must take a unique stance when coping with the issue.
A situation that is all the more striking for a country with such a unique historical experience.
How has President Putin’s government influenced the violation of the rights of LGBTQ+ people in Russia? This paper examines the human rights violations committed against LGBTQ+ citizens in Russia from 2006 to the present. It fundamentally argues that the basis of anti-LGBTQ+ behavior finds its strength in the Russian home, Orthodox Church, and traditionalist government under Putin. The rights this paper focuses on are the right to freedom of expression, right to assembly, right to privacy, and freedom from discrimination. This analysis finds that under President Putin, LGBTQ+ citizens have experienced greater violence and oppression from a legal standpoint as well as an increase in vigilante violence encouraged by the government’s traditionalist ideology.
For as long as there has been a United States, there have been Americans offering forward the American federal model as a way to cure Europe’s ills. If the American colonies could overcome their seemingly irreconcilable differences to build a federal state, why couldn’t the Europeans?
Through the lens of constructivist feminism and realism, as well as current conditions of foreign policy initiatives between the United States and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, it can be determined that women’s rights issues have grown in importance in the international realm and are becoming a vital part of the foreign policy agenda in the developed world, particularly in the United States. The introduction of women’s rights into foreign policy initiatives by the United States has yet to be completely successful, however, the introduction, and effort in introducing, such initiatives is progress in and of itself. Though it is true that much still needs to be done, it cannot be denied that foreign policy focuses have shifted over time and women are becoming a more prominent topic of conversation all over the world. With the United States at the forefront pressing for more focus on women’s rights and women empowerment, it is only a matter of time before more countries push for the same goal, and inevitable progress will be made.
This paper seeks to understand the extent to which the strains in the Sino-Indian relations are a potential stumbling block for the BRICS association composed of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The key finding of this analysis is the extent to which the Beijing-New Delhi relationship is durable precisely because India and China have gained proficiency for mutual trading and proclaiming cordial relations with one another while at the same time engaging in standoffs and territorial disputes. Seemingly unique in international affairs, a similar state of relations and foreign policy is however exhibited by China in relation to Japan, South Korea and the US; thus the cheek-by-jowl coexistence of trade and apparent strategic tensions in the China-India relationship can be viewed in these lenses, and in that sense is nothing unique and is in fact cause to project that the relationship is bound to be tension-fueled and perhaps escalate but not erupt while at the same time not undermining trade relations. Furthermore, shared regional responsibilities, nuclear deterrence, alliance structures and deep trade ties are there to further make the prospect of an outright conflict between the two growing powers that much more unlikely. To that degree, the BRICS association can be said to be relatively secure from unravelling on account of Sino-Indian strains.
The resolution of maritime disputes entails a superlative diplomatic effort, which may sometimes leave behind a sense of grievance among the countries involved in the contest. This is not, however, always the case.
The integrity of the European Union has been called into question after one of its leading members, the United Kingdom, voted to exist the community in a move known as 'Brexit'. What possible scenarios could result from this first step towards union dissolution? And how would European security be impacted if a full union break-up were to take place?
What if every global development project was designed by people in the villages and cities who were the actual beneficiaries of that project...Could this truly work, or is it just a grand-sounding idea?
Sino-African relations date back to the early 1950s and the emergence of the People's Republic of China as an international actor, but, since 2000, China's presence in Africa has exploded. Beijing's involvement extends beyond trade to influence diverse sectors, such as infrastructure construction, national development funds, natural resource extraction, health, and a Chinese migration pattern that has now settled more than 1 million Chinese in Africa. [Please note that this article is in French]
Cultural monuments and sites have historical and personal significance for nations. A radical group may target such sites to demonstrate a blatant and intentional disregard for a culture’s history and to display the scope of the group’s power over a population.
John Le Carré’s novel effectively illustrates the realities of the global intelligence community during the Cold War era and illustrates key components about CI tradecraft, politics, and bureaucracy.
Through the newspapers and interviews, it can be inferred that the stakeholders on Easter Island have a collective responsibility to work for more sustainable tourism to preserve not only the environment but also the culture and dignity of the indigenous Rapa Nui.
In this view, it can be rightly assessed that if China’s current identity is based on the past atrocities motivated by Japanese aggression, then in future discourse China will continue to interpret every Japanese action through this historical prism.
Travelers, in my opinion, are voluntary diplomats, recognizing the weight of their actions and words for how others see their home country and its people. Voluntary diplomacy means opening up to new people and experiences, even when it isn’t easy.
“Shabbat shalom!” “No thank you” I replied with a bashful smile, assuming that people on the street were trying to sell me something. While the confused looks clued me in that something was strange, I failed to realize that the strange thing was me until hours later when the pieces came together: Shabbat is the Sabbath and the phrase is simply a friendly greeting. As the individuals I came across on the streets of Tel Aviv, Israel on that Friday morning likely deduced, I not only did not know any Hebrew – I am also not Jewish. After filtering through the usual questions – you’re American? (Yes.) Are you on birthright? (No.) Are you Jewish? (No.) – there was inevitably some confusion as to why I was in Israel.
Just shy of his 25th birthday, my great-uncle S/Sgt. Oscar Rome was killed when his B-17 was shot down by Nazi fighters over Yugoslavia. 73 years later, I visited the crash site in rural Slovenia and found that his sacrifice had become a symbol of American-Slovenian friendship.
"The country teaches you to find an inner strength. It is something you may not know exists, but is almost certainly present in all of us." While research on the dairy value chain was the professional culmination of her internship in Addis Ababa, Rachel Brock's personal experiences are what lastingly defined her summer in Ethiopia.
"Beijing is a particularly interesting place as an environmentalist. When daily life is directly affected by pollution, it becomes blatantly clear that something needs to be done. Urgently." Explore how Cynthia's summer spent as a policy intern at a Chinese environmental innovation center restored her hope for the climate movement.
Travel through Italy with Marco DiLeonardo's account of his study abroad experience in Bologna, and how his personal roots to the region enhanced his experience.
Negotiations strategies, dispute settlement methods, and how to end the war with Colombia's FARC rebels: University of Pennsylvania junior Teddie Levenfiche reflects upon his experiences interning in the Colombian Congress.
[Article in Spanish] Located in the core of the South China Sea, the Spratly Islands have witnessed successive disputes between the surrounding Asian countries, which have sought to annex them to their territories during the last forty years. The main reason behind this geostrategic conflict is the privileged position of this archipelago, which is placed in one of the most traversed trade routes of the world. In addition, their richness in natural resources, including coal, gas and fishing reserves makes the Spratly Islands one of the crowning jewels of the South China Sea. Since Japan renounced to its rights of claim over them with the signature of the Peace Treaty of San Francisco in 1951, the race towards their control has resulted in several disputes between China, Taiwan, The Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam. Regardless of the International law sentences and the mediating effort of ASEAN, these countries are still de facto involved in a silent battle for the control of the Spratly. Therefore, the resolution of this conflict accounts for one of the most defying challenges of modern Southeast Asian diplomacy.
[Article in Spanish] Since the birth of the modern State of Cambodia, the International Community has questioned the transparency of its political system, apparently veiled under the principles of deliberative democracy. During the 30 years of governance of its prime minister Hun Sen, corruption and fraud have shadowed elections, and numerous cases of intimacy and threats have been reported prior to the celebration of these kind of processes. The fear of losing its hegemonic position has led Hun Sen to start a cleansing campaign against non-aligned media and civil organizations, aiming to eliminate any potential obstacles on its race to the 2018 elections. However, it has not been until the detention of the leader of the opposition party CNRP Kem Sokha on treason charges when the International Community has demanded the cease of these anti-democratic actions. Nonetheless, the past behavior of the Cambodian leader regarding these kind of global complaints leaves small room for hope for those who dream about a truly democratic Cambodia.