In December 2017, Taiwan (Republic of China) became the first government to recognize Hakka as an official national language. For the Hakka, a ‘guest people’ without a homeland, preserving its language remains the most vital aspect of continuing the group’s culture, which has played such an indispensable role in shaping China and Southeast Asia in recent history.
The world has slowly descend back into a Cold War-era great power competition in cyberspace. The WannaCry attack is just one of the first consequences to be felt.
Despite declaring that he will give brokering a peace deal “one hell of a shot,” Trump has instead almost surely erased any hope of finding a resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict during his tenure.
Can the silence of the United Nations Security Council be attributed to its role in the events in Yemen?
Since the inception of the United Nations in 1945, the maintenance of international peace and security has been its top mission and central theme. However, recent history has proved that the organization, in its current form, is impotent at responding to massive abuses of human rights especially when it comes to genocides and ethnic cleansing.
While 2017 has seen the resurfacing of the chronic nuclear question plaguing international affairs, it also brings forth a hopeful reminder — the 30th anniversary of New Zealand’s stringent nuclear-free foreign policy. The South Pacific has proven that there remains a very real alternative to atomic diplomacy, and should be recognized for its efforts in advocating for communication and diplomacy rather than open atomic deterrence.
We might know all the facts and all the necessary steps that need to be taken not to reach the 2°C threshold. But actually acting upon this knowledge is a whole different story. We need to understand the importance of nature and how people are affected by it: not just factually, but emotionally. In a globalized world, we need to extend our empathy to all corners of the earth. Climate change knows no circle nor national border.
What sounds like the blurb on the back of a Tom Clancy book jacket is the actual series of events that has taken place over the past few weeks between Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.
A.I., Big Data, IoT, Cloud, 3D printing, Bio-engineering, Smart farming, Drones, Self-driving. All these big words signify the onset of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). What is unique about the term is that it was pointed out in advance, unlike the former three.
When it comes to economic assets, Saudi Arabia has historically missed out on leveraging its most important reserve, the capacity and capabilities of women. Indeed, women are the key ingredient to bringing about true transformation to our country. Today, under the visionary HRH Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, we are seeing the beginnings of this take shape.
The Rohingya crisis has recently saturated western media, but the persecution of these people has intensified within the last 200 years. Paralysis in the international community aggravates generations of abuse with consequences felt within and beyond Myanmar. The current situation is devolving into ethnic cleansing, threatening a "final solution" for the Rohingya people.
In 2011, the U.S. and its allies tried to forcefully install a democratic system in Libya by removing its president of 42 years, Muammar Gaddafi. He was killed soon after by militants. Gaddafi had succeeded in improving many societal services in Libya, including education, health, and housing. According to the World Bank, in 2010 Libya had the sixth highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa, and its population’s life expectancy ranked number one. In his 2011 remarks on Libya, while Gaddafi was still in power, President Obama said, “Of course, there is no question that Libya – and the world – will be better off with Gaddafi out of power. I, along with many other world leaders, have embraced that goal, and will actively pursue it through non-military means.” Unfortunately, Libya has been standing on shaky grounds ever since the U.S and its allies removed Gaddafi from power...
China is North Korea’s sole ally. Since intervening on behalf of North Korea during the Korean War, China has been a staunch supporter of the Communist North Korean government. In the past, China has done little to pressure North Korea to abandon its pursuit of nuclear weapons and its provocative missile tests, but that may soon change. I
The use of sarin indicates that Assad’s chemical weapons program is far more extensive than intelligence experts and policymakers believed. In the wake of the 2013 chemical attack in the Ghouta district outside of Damascus, the U.S. and Russia backed a plan by which Syria would give up its chemical stockpiles. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)would then transport and dismantle them under international supervision. By spring of 2014, the Obama administration reported that all of Syria’s reported chemical weapons had been removed from the country. Since then, the Syrian government has used chlorine gas on rebels on multiple occasions.
Leveling contradictory examples of isolationist, pragmatic and Machiavellian policy choices, the new president appears to be leaping down the same path of support for brutal authoritarian regimes and to be supporting vicious insurgent movements in favor of a “quick fix” in the Middle East. Clearly failing to hide his reverence for the autocratic institutions of oppressed nations, President Trump is pursuing an unsustainable, counterproductive and outright dangerous policy that, according to all logic, will produce tangible benefits for neither the American people nor the average citizens of literally any other country.
On Thursday, Venezuela lost its last vestige of representative democracy when President Nicolas Maduro, aligned with the country’s supreme court magistrates, suspended the Venezuelan National Assembly. In a move derided by the international community, Maduro and the magistrates removed the opposition party from power and effectively completed Venezuela’s transformation into a one-party state. These developments, coupled with an economic and humanitarian crisis, make a military-backed coup d’etat against Maduro’s government a very real possibility.
The use of one trend—chronic growth failure—to describe postcolonial African growth is like drawing a linear line of best fit through a circular function. While the line will inadvertently intersect the function twice, this line in no way properly describes the relationships between data points. Combine this with the one-size-fits-all insistence that bad institutions and bad governance account for slow growth. We are left with a determination for why growth in Africa has failed that may appear aesthetically salient, but exercises no real explanatory power or guidance for future strategies.
The belief that the United States is not in an adequate state to embrace refugees ignores not only the strength of the U.S. as a global world power, but also the example that countries with far fewer resources than the United States set. Lebanon has the greatest per capita concentration of refugees in the world. With a two-year political vacuum, decades-old internal divisions, and an infant government, Lebanon is in a comparatively far less adequate position to welcome refugees.
Geert Wilders, a Dutch politician and founder of the Netherlands’ Party for Freedom (PVV) was recently indicted in a hate speech lawsuit for rousing discrimination against immigrants in his country. The Netherlands is holding federal elections in mid-March. Wilders’ party is leading in nearly every poll. The PVV is set to win.
So how do Chinese college students in China view President Trump? The answer is not in Trump’s favor. Because of his campaign rhetoric and aggressive stance on the South China Sea - most notably Steve Bannon’s prediction of a war in the region – the Chinese people have long been wary of Trump’s foreign policy ideas. Talking with Chinese students at Tsinghua University and Peking University, I found that they believe Trump’s behavior and attitude towards their country is unhealthy for developing a constructive relationship between the two nations.
Economists can argue about the economic merits or shortcomings of the TPP, and there are certainly many of each. But an equally significant—and much less talked about—consideration is that of the geopolitical consequences of withdrawing from the free trade agreement.
In sum, the government is struggling to attract the upcoming generation and soon the government will be in dire need of new employees. What could go wrong? Clearly, a federal hiring freeze contributes to, rather than alleviates the problem.
Seven years on, that spirit of tech optimism seems amusingly naïve. The Prophets of Silicon Valley were wrong. The much expected end of history remains as elusive as ever in the Digital Age. Occupy Wall Street slowly asphyxiated without a definite end game. The specter of austerity lingers across Europe. Of the nations involved in the Arab Spring, only Tunisia has made lasting democratic reforms.
When talking about immigration, political speeches are full of ‘us’ versus ‘them’ rhetoric. However, is it possible for someone to identify with both groups? The answer is yes. Such individuals are known as Third Culture Kids or Adult Third Culture Kids.
With a stroke of a pen, Putin completed the annexation of Crimea, but the confidence and power projected by the bare-chested horse-riding is completely ruined by the amateurism of annexing a region with a common Montblanc Meisterstück 149.
At a Christian Democratic Union (CDU) gathering earlier this month, German chancellor Angela Merkel called for a nationwide full-face veil ban. One statement she made at this conference particularly grabbed the attention of news media- “The full veil is not appropriate here. It should be forbidden wherever that is legally possible.”
The ban represents a tangible product of deeper insecurities founded in the intersection of French national identity, immigration, and assimilation.
Donald Trump’s unexpected victory in the November 8 U.S presidential election received much attention in China. As mass protests against Trump erupted across a number of major U.S cities, Chinese netizens celebrated on social media platform Weibo, and some stores even went as far as offering sales in response to the U.S election results.
While the election’s outcome most obviously impacts Mexico (the peso dropped over twelve percent following Hillary Clinton’s concession), the results leave future U.S.-Latin American relations in question, as most Latin American countries prepare to deal with a president they neither expected nor wanted.
Though President-Elect Trump has not created a formal foreign policy for Asia, should he follow through with his campaign promises, it could have dire consequences for the United States and Asia.
On February 5th, 2018, the President of the Republic of Maldives declared a 15-day state of emergency after the country’s Supreme Court ordered him to release a number of opposition political members that he had imprisoned.Beyond the image of an idyllic tropical paradise, the Maldives has firmly been placed on the map as an increasingly important geopolitical area in the Indian Ocean.
The 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics Games in South Korea is more than just another major sporting event for the host country. This February, South Korea marches into the Winter Olympics hand in hand with the North, after more than 20 years since the two countries last competed together as a united team in a major sporting event.
Recent reports by the New York Times and the Washington Post have revealed that the Egyptian and Israeli governments have been secretly working together on counterterrorism efforts in the Sinai Peninsula. The fact that the Egyptian and Israeli security apparatuses have been cooperating in recent years has never really been a secret, but the surprising thing about these reports is just how close that relationship has become.
While the rest of the developed world is gravitating away from the idea of an integrated global market, China is leaning into it. The Belt and Road Initiative is a call back to the age when China ran the world’s economy, an age the world may be about to witness again.
When jetting around the world, air travelers typically associate their journey with how long the security line was, or how bland the airplane food. But little do passengers know, the real battle is between airplane makers as they vie for market shares.
Among the silent ongoing conflicts in Southeast Asia, the Hmong problem in Laos remains as one of the longest unsolved crises in the region. Despite the magnitude of the bloodshed, the international community has not found a solution to the Hmong problem, and today many members of this ethnic are still struggling against governmental persecution.
Until recently, Hong Kong’s middle and upper classes lived in utopic ignorance regarding the welfare of foreign domestic helpers. However, news articles exposing the systematic abuse of foreign domestic workers published in recent years have opened Pandora’s Box.
Unfortunately, terrorism has become one of the major transnational threats of our times. The rise and expansion of groups like Al-Qaeda or ISIS, and the international scope of their attacks have harmed multiple societies, regardless of their location. However, Southeast Asia has emerged as a significant bastion for terrorists, and most specifically jihadists. Today, their safest haven in the region has become The Philippines, a country whose recent history has been marked by the attacks of different terrorist groups. However, what is the reason behind this geostrategic choice of Asian jihadists? What role does terrorism play in the Philippines today?
As the issue of climate change continues to grow each year, low-lying coastal countries such as the pacific nation of Kiribati may become completely uninhabitable within decades. But then, where do the people go?
After 35 years of rule over Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe’s dictatorship over the former British colony came to an unceremonious end November 21st after a military coup removed him from power.Though Zimbabwe’s economy is still in ruins and its population nursing wounds from Mugabe’s brutal crackdowns, this is no doubt a new era for the country and Africa.
This past Friday, Egyptians experienced the deadliest terrorist attack in the country’s history. To many, this latest tragedy is yet another example of Egyptian president Abdel Fattah El-Sisi’s failed counterterrorism strategy.
China has traditionally invested in infrastructure projects in the developing world. Now, the superpower has turned its sights to a new recipient: the United States.
On October 26, Jacinda Ardern, the leader of the center-left Labour Party, was sworn in as New Zealand’s 40th Prime Minister. The same month also saw the election of populist-leaning governments in two other countries. How does the New Zealand general election fit into the context of anti-globalization?
NATO’s military buildup in Eastern Europe is a pertinent issue that requires careful consideration from both sides to prevent the signaling of wrong intentions and aggravating tensions further.
With shifting leader preferences, new international interest in securing a negotiated settlement, and worsening civilian conditions, will the new round of Palestinian reconciliation efforts finally lead to peace?
The importance of this small African nation is often overlooked. However, it's geostrategic position, control of vast oil reserves, and advent of a relationship with China promises to increase its importance on the global stage.
Although it seems that the sun is setting on ISIS’ power as a terrorist group and quasi- state, recent findings suggest there has been a resurgence in recruitment, particularly of women. How do these changing dynamics affect strategies to combat ISIS?
In this year's July edition of Foreign Affairs, Senator Tim Kaine (VA-D) became the latest statesman to try his hand at the challenge of crafting an American grand strategy for the post-Cold War world. Not surprisingly he failed, both as historian and as grand strategist.
Even if Paraguay and Venezuela do not slide into total dictatorship, neither will qualify as legitimate democracies in the eyes of other Latin American states and the rest of the world. This serves as an impediment to the kind of Latin American unity necessary for the preservation of regional trading and security blocs MERCOSUR and UNASUR – organizations Paraguay and Venezuela both belonged to for several years before Venezuela was removed from MERCOSUR in late 2016 for violating the bloc’s democratic bylaws. Setbacks such as this stall the movement towards Latin American political and economic integration that underpins both organizations.
Venezuela and South Korea are both presidential republics/representative democracies; they have a system where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature, and elected representatives – not citizens themselves – vote on legislation. Currently, these two countries are experiencing high political tensions, making headlines all over the world. The two cases share some common threads which are worth noting.
African development discourse likes to debate whether Africa’s rapid population growth constitutes the desirable demographic (“youth”) dividend, or a much more ambivalent youth bulge. The United Nations defines a demographic dividend as “the economic growth that ensues when there are more working-age people (15 to 64) than the non-working people (14 and younger, and 65 and older).” Conversely, a youth bulge is characterized by “high youth unemployment and widespread protests—a recipe for political instability.” So, which one is it?
As a component of these schemes, the North Korean Government runs a chain of restaurants throughout the world called Pyongyang Restaurant, featuring hand-selected North Korean waitresses serving North Korean food, karaoke services, and mysterious secret rooms. Although this chain had long existed in China and former Soviet bloc countries, the North Korean government saw potential in entering Pyongyang into the Southeast Asian market during the early 2000s. These new venues allowed North Korea to increase their network of revenue and money laundering, and could serve as potential recruiting grounds.
With homes turned into rubble, and civilians facing a dire lack of food, water, electricity, and medical supplies, the people of Mosul are barely clinging to life. They are stuck between the weapons of IS and those of coalition forces. Once the battle slows down, can the residents of Mosul trust either U.S.-backed forces or IS as protectors?
Hopefully, the challenges of declining diamond revenues, sustaining growth and a growing social service budget will foster new political parties with fresh visions and solutions for Botswana, finally pushing it into the ranks of a truly competitive democracy. But the possibility for a descent into flawed democracy or authoritarianism, or for massive social upheaval in response to economic struggles, cannot be ruled out. Botswana has been a star in Africa and in development literature, but a stagnant, or increasingly authoritarian Ian Khama-led-BDP, may test whether Botswana's democratic institutions are as enduring as its diamonds or as finite as its diamond mines.
Articles about South Sudan invariably describe it as the world's youngest country; yet what is more important to remember is that civil wars have plagued the nation since before most countries in Africa enjoyed independence.
On March 10, 2017, China sent 140 peacekeeping police officers for a yearlong deployment to Liberia as part of United Nations peacekeeping operations. Deployments from China are becoming increasingly common as the country becomes more involved in peacekeeping in Africa. Since joining the United Nations in 1971, China has contributed 2,594 personnel to over a dozen UN peacekeeping operations. But China was not always this supportive of UN operations.
To say the outlook for the growth of extremism in Egypt is bleak would be an understatement, but to assume that we’ve hit rock bottom would be an even graver mistake. To start, the conflict against the deep-rooted terrorist organizations has been ongoing since 2013, and although al-Sisi commanded the “eradication of terrorism” in the North Sinai region, it would be naïve to think such lofty goals could be accomplished even within a few years.
In 1997, much of the world breathed a collective sigh of relieve when the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entered into force. Those states party to the agreement pledged to destroy their chemical weapons and their production facilities. With 192 states signing on to the agreement, it is widely viewed as an arms control success. However, following the assassination of Kim Jong-nam and President Bashar al-Assad’s CWC violations during the Syrian civil war, the use of chemical weapons seems to be on the rise.
As the debate about refugees and “travel ban” continues to occupy U.S. headlines, President Trump should remember that America’s intervention has created many of the Iraqi refugees he strives to turn away. How can Iraqis reconcile the U.S. invasion of their country with Washington’s ban? If there is one lesson to be learned from the Iraq war it is that America’s decisions abroad matter.
There is no doubt that, over the last few years, China has been following a much more assertive policy in its near abroad. At the center of this aggressive shift is the South China Sea, where China has competing territorial claims with several neighboring states. Although China’s assertiveness in the South China Sea appears to be a key element of Beijing’s foreign policy, the Obama administration responded to Chinese moves with only partial success. As such, the first challenge to the Trump administration from China will likely involve this contested region of the world.
Just shy of his 25th birthday, my great-uncle S/Sgt. Oscar Rome was killed when his B-17 was shot down by Nazi fighters over Yugoslavia. 73 years later, I visited the crash site in rural Slovenia and found that his sacrifice had become a symbol of American-Slovenian friendship.
"The country teaches you to find an inner strength. It is something you may not know exists, but is almost certainly present in all of us." While research on the dairy value chain was the professional culmination of her internship in Addis Ababa, Rachel Brock's personal experiences are what lastingly defined her summer in Ethiopia.
"Beijing is a particularly interesting place as an environmentalist. When daily life is directly affected by pollution, it becomes blatantly clear that something needs to be done. Urgently." Explore how Cynthia's summer spent as a policy intern at a Chinese environmental innovation center restored her hope for the climate movement.
Travel through Italy with Marco DiLeonardo's account of his study abroad experience in Bologna, and how his personal roots to the region enhanced his experience.
Negotiations strategies, dispute settlement methods, and how to end the war with Colombia's FARC rebels: University of Pennsylvania junior Teddie Levenfiche reflects upon his experiences interning in the Colombian Congress.
This paper seeks to explore what roles labor migration, economy, international and transnational organizations, and historical strife play in modern Dominican apartheid. The author claims that on top of a historical anti-Haitian sentiment, a lack of suitable social welfare and education programs further the problem to the point of genocidal potential. It is also thought that pressure from transnational organizations, as well as programs through non-governmental organizations could help remedy the situation. However, with Dominican Republic anti-Haitian sentiment being so frequent, as well as relatively small in numbers when compared to other cases of genocidal violence, the international system must take a unique stance when coping with the issue.
A situation that is all the more striking for a country with such a unique historical experience.
How has President Putin’s government influenced the violation of the rights of LGBTQ+ people in Russia? This paper examines the human rights violations committed against LGBTQ+ citizens in Russia from 2006 to the present. It fundamentally argues that the basis of anti-LGBTQ+ behavior finds its strength in the Russian home, Orthodox Church, and traditionalist government under Putin. The rights this paper focuses on are the right to freedom of expression, right to assembly, right to privacy, and freedom from discrimination. This analysis finds that under President Putin, LGBTQ+ citizens have experienced greater violence and oppression from a legal standpoint as well as an increase in vigilante violence encouraged by the government’s traditionalist ideology.
For as long as there has been a United States, there have been Americans offering forward the American federal model as a way to cure Europe’s ills. If the American colonies could overcome their seemingly irreconcilable differences to build a federal state, why couldn’t the Europeans?
Through the lens of constructivist feminism and realism, as well as current conditions of foreign policy initiatives between the United States and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, it can be determined that women’s rights issues have grown in importance in the international realm and are becoming a vital part of the foreign policy agenda in the developed world, particularly in the United States. The introduction of women’s rights into foreign policy initiatives by the United States has yet to be completely successful, however, the introduction, and effort in introducing, such initiatives is progress in and of itself. Though it is true that much still needs to be done, it cannot be denied that foreign policy focuses have shifted over time and women are becoming a more prominent topic of conversation all over the world. With the United States at the forefront pressing for more focus on women’s rights and women empowerment, it is only a matter of time before more countries push for the same goal, and inevitable progress will be made.
This paper seeks to understand the extent to which the strains in the Sino-Indian relations are a potential stumbling block for the BRICS association composed of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The key finding of this analysis is the extent to which the Beijing-New Delhi relationship is durable precisely because India and China have gained proficiency for mutual trading and proclaiming cordial relations with one another while at the same time engaging in standoffs and territorial disputes. Seemingly unique in international affairs, a similar state of relations and foreign policy is however exhibited by China in relation to Japan, South Korea and the US; thus the cheek-by-jowl coexistence of trade and apparent strategic tensions in the China-India relationship can be viewed in these lenses, and in that sense is nothing unique and is in fact cause to project that the relationship is bound to be tension-fueled and perhaps escalate but not erupt while at the same time not undermining trade relations. Furthermore, shared regional responsibilities, nuclear deterrence, alliance structures and deep trade ties are there to further make the prospect of an outright conflict between the two growing powers that much more unlikely. To that degree, the BRICS association can be said to be relatively secure from unravelling on account of Sino-Indian strains.
The resolution of maritime disputes entails a superlative diplomatic effort, which may sometimes leave behind a sense of grievance among the countries involved in the contest. This is not, however, always the case.
The integrity of the European Union has been called into question after one of its leading members, the United Kingdom, voted to exist the community in a move known as 'Brexit'. What possible scenarios could result from this first step towards union dissolution? And how would European security be impacted if a full union break-up were to take place?
What if every global development project was designed by people in the villages and cities who were the actual beneficiaries of that project...Could this truly work, or is it just a grand-sounding idea?
Sino-African relations date back to the early 1950s and the emergence of the People's Republic of China as an international actor, but, since 2000, China's presence in Africa has exploded. Beijing's involvement extends beyond trade to influence diverse sectors, such as infrastructure construction, national development funds, natural resource extraction, health, and a Chinese migration pattern that has now settled more than 1 million Chinese in Africa. [Please note that this article is in French]
Cultural monuments and sites have historical and personal significance for nations. A radical group may target such sites to demonstrate a blatant and intentional disregard for a culture’s history and to display the scope of the group’s power over a population.
John Le Carré’s novel effectively illustrates the realities of the global intelligence community during the Cold War era and illustrates key components about CI tradecraft, politics, and bureaucracy.
Through the newspapers and interviews, it can be inferred that the stakeholders on Easter Island have a collective responsibility to work for more sustainable tourism to preserve not only the environment but also the culture and dignity of the indigenous Rapa Nui.
In this view, it can be rightly assessed that if China’s current identity is based on the past atrocities motivated by Japanese aggression, then in future discourse China will continue to interpret every Japanese action through this historical prism.
While sovereignty movements in the Caribbean may be based on strong sentiments of solidarity, unavoidable external forces will significantly hamper success. In defining the accomplishments of a political struggle, protestors must thus look beyond the failure to achieve impossible feats and instead emphasize the “‘unspectacular’ transformations that abound in the daily re-creations of ordinary life” (Bonilla 2015:172). Simply put, activists must not be fooled by the mirage of sovereignty.
By identifying the Islamic State’s primary communication methods and tactics used to establish a growing Indo-Pacific presence, the latter portion will provide a fundamental framework as to how regional actors can expectantly mitigate and reduce the threat to security and stability through the fifth domain.
Although Internet censorship maintains the Chinese Communist Party's ultimate authority, it creates domestic and international consequences that tarnish the Party’s image.
Taiwan's conscription does not fulfill its intended purpose of protecting Taiwan from China, but at the same time its advancement is curbed by the island’s tenuous relationship with the mainland. The Catch-22 of the Taiwanese armed forces is that it must improve itself to defend the island but is severely limited by China’s strength.
The paper explains the functioning of the garden and delves into how they interact with the lives of the refugees to aid in eliminating some of the negative factors listed above and instead create a positive outlets and constructive habits for transitioning to an intimidating and confusing new culture.
The safety of women is prioritized over that of men because international and state actors construe women as more vulnerable than men. In designating women as more vulnerable than men, international and state actors construct more dangerous environments for men who are not afforded the same protections as women.
This flagrant anti-Russian sentiment in America underscores an increasingly bellicose reaction from the West, and in particular, the US. This reaction however, is misplaced, and though well intentioned, is an overreaction to events not truly concerning the United States.
The United States must escalate its military campaign against ISIS proportionate to the group’s increasing capabilities, but that a full-scale intervention is neither advisable nor the most effective US strategy.
The eventual collapse of the Soviet Union deprived NATO of its common purpose: no longer was there an imminent, existential threat to the capitalist countries of Western Europe. Many would argue that NATO, with its original rationale for existence made inapplicable years ago, is irrelevant in the modern era.
This piece seeks to address the feasibility of an establishment of a Kurdish state in the Middle East. The conclusions reached are that (1) the prospects for the creation of a Kurdistan are rather bleak and (2) the present state of the Kurdish population varies significantly from country to country.
Overall, Metternich was extremely effective in preserving Austria’s power which resulted from his ability to manipulate cunningly the events of 1812 to 1815 by temporarily preserving neutrality and tactically leading peace negotiations.
I intend to focus on the comparative economic developments in these two regions. Significant academic discussion has been devoted to understanding how East Asia was able to sustain its economic growth throughout the twentieth century while Latin America showed clear signs of mitigated progress and stagnation.
The conclusions reached are that (1) Iran’s massive natural gas reserves and tremendous oil resources make it a top energy player and (2) the lifting of sanctions would catalyze a dramatic increase in Iran’s energy output, thus bolstering Iran’s future energy prospects. Iran was chosen because international sanctions have devastated Iran’s energy sector, and repealing sanctions will considerably improve the Iranian economy and energy production.
Providing certain groups with privileges and power in a colonized state may serve to control in the immediate sense, but playing favorites only serves to create tensions in an oppressed society that will return to ultimately hurt the imperial force.
Today, the nature of U.S.-Russian relations is recognized as precarious by both policymakers and business leaders. What are the political and financial consequences of America’s current sanctions on Russia? Who will gain from this policy? And, more importantly, who will lose?
China has grown to the second largest economy in the world and the seventh largest retail market. With brisk economic development and an expanding middle class eager to spend its newfound wealth, Wal-Mart and other retailers perceive great potential in expanding their companies into China.
[Article in Spanish] Since the birth of the modern State of Cambodia, the International Community has questioned the transparency of its political system, apparently veiled under the principles of deliberative democracy. During the 30 years of governance of its prime minister Hun Sen, corruption and fraud have shadowed elections, and numerous cases of intimacy and threats have been reported prior to the celebration of these kind of processes. The fear of losing its hegemonic position has led Hun Sen to start a cleansing campaign against non-aligned media and civil organizations, aiming to eliminate any potential obstacles on its race to the 2018 elections. However, it has not been until the detention of the leader of the opposition party CNRP Kem Sokha on treason charges when the International Community has demanded the cease of these anti-democratic actions. Nonetheless, the past behavior of the Cambodian leader regarding these kind of global complaints leaves small room for hope for those who dream about a truly democratic Cambodia.